Oncology and Nuclear Medicine
Oncology and Nuclear Surgery in Turkey
Today, Turkey is a leader country in medical tourism for international patients who seek oncological treatment. Oncology and nuclear medicine treatment in Turkey is definitely the main focus of medical tourism also. Due to modern technologies, it possible to conduct painless and safe surgical interventions to eliminate tumors of various sizes and classes and to carry out effective treatment of cancer. All treatment methods are carried out in accordance with inter-national standards (NCCN – in the USA, ESMO – in Europe).
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Why Get Oncology Treatment in Turkey?
The prices oncology treatments are %50 - %80 lower than in the USA or Europe, but the quality is at the same level. The low cost is explained by general price policy in the country oriented on the local citizens’ income.
Turkey is convenient to reach for patients from all over Europe with less than four flying hours.
Turkey has a lot to offer in terms of history, culture, shopping and beaches, so many patients choose to extend their trip into a holiday and make the most of their time in the country. Many of the best cardiac surgery doctors in Turkey are located in Istanbul, which is a popular tourist destination in its own right.
You’ll also find that waiting times are next to none. You should be able to schedule an appointment very quickly with MTS.
Common Oncological Treatments in Turkey
The most important thing about cancer treatment the correct diagnostics. Knowing that almost %30 of patients with cancer come to Turkey with an inaccurate diagnosis, which is mistakenly made by a doctor in their home countries. This is why the diagnostic process is extremely important. In Turkey it’s conducted on the most modern equipment in the world. Hospitals are equipped with everything necessary to deter-mine areas of cancer cells. After examination is made, professors of various profiles, leading by chemotherapists, radiologists and surgeons, make common decision on treatment methods. Every case differs as well as therapy and medications.
In this type of cancer treatment, chemotherapy is used to destroy cancer cells. Treatment with chemical drugs is used both as a single method of treatment and in combination with other medicines or methods of oncological treatment such as surgery or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy is used for treatment purposes, the use of drugs before and after surgery. As a control over the disease in order to stop the growth and spread of the tumor and prolong life and as palliative care for patients with stage 4 oncological diseases.
Goals of chemotherapy treatment
Cure; if possible, chemo is used to cure cancer, meaning that the cancer is destroyed – it goes away and doesn’t come back. Most doctors don’t use the word “cure” except as a possibility or intention. So, when giving treatment that has a chance of curing a person’s cancer, the doctor may describe it as treatment with curative intent.
Control; if cure is not possible, the goal may be to control the disease. Chemo is used to shrink tumors and/or stop the cancer from growing and spreading. This can help the person with cancer feel better and live longer. In many cases, the cancer doesn’t completely go away, but is controlled and managed as a chronic disease, much like heart disease or diabetes. In other cases, the cancer may even seem to have gone away for a while, but it’s expected to come back. Then chemo can be given again.
Palliation; Chemo can also be used to ease symptoms caused by the cancer. This is called palliative chemotherapy or palliation. When the cancer is at an advanced stage, meaning it’s not under control and has spread from where it started to other parts of the body, the goal may be to improve the quality of life or help the person feel better. For instance, chemo may be used to help shrink a tumor that’s causing pain or pressure.
Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions.
Nuclear medicine imaging procedures are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions.
These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radio-tracers.
Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam, the radiotracer is either injected into the body, swallowed or inhaled as a gas and eventually accumulates in the or-gan or area of the body being examined. Radioactive emissions from the radiotracer are detected by a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and pro-vides molecular information.
In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to produce special views, a practice known as image fusion or co-registration. These views allow the information from two different exams to be correlated and interpreted on one image, leading to more precise information and accurate diagnoses. In addition, manufacturers are now making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) units that are able to perform both imaging exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at this time is PET/MRI.
Nuclear medicine also offers therapeutic procedures, such as radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy that use small amounts of radioactive material to treat cancer and other medical conditions affecting the thyroid gland, as well as treatments for other cancers and medical conditions.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who do not respond to chemotherapy may under-go radioimmunotherapy (RIT).
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a personalized cancer treatment that combines radiation therapy with the targeting ability of immunotherapy, a treatment that mimics cellular activity in the body's immune system.
What are some common uses of the procedure?
Physicians use radionuclide imaging procedures to visualize the structure and function of an organ, tissue, bone or system within the body.
In adults, nuclear medicine is used to:
• visualize heart blood flow and function (such as a myocardial perfusion scan)
• detect coronary artery disease and the extent of coronary stenosis
• assess damage to the heart following a heart attack
• evaluate treatment options such as bypass heart surgery and angioplasty
• evaluate the results of revascularization procedures
• detect heart transplant rejection
• evaluate heart function before and after chemotherapy (MUGA)
• scan lungs for respiratory and blood flow problems
• assess differential lung function for lung reduction or transplant surgery
• detect lung transplant rejection
• evaluate bones for fractures, infection and arthritis
• evaluate for metastatic bone disease
• evaluate painful prosthetic joints
• evaluate bone tumors
• identify sites for biopsy
• investigate abnormalities in the brain in patients with certain symptoms or dis-orders, such as seizures, memory loss and suspected abnormalities in blood flow
• detect the early onset of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease
• assist in surgical planning and localize seizure foci
• evaluate for abnormalities in a chemical in the brain involved in controlling movement in patients with suspected Parkinson's disease or related movement dis-orders
• evaluation for suspected brain tumor recurrence, surgical or radiation planning or localization for biopsy
• identify inflammation or abnormal function of the gallbladder
• identify bleeding into the bowel
• assess post-operative complications of gallbladder surgery
• evaluate lymphedema
• evaluate fever of unknown origin
• locate the presence of infection
• measure thyroid function to detect an overactive or underactive thyroid
• help diagnose hyperthyroidism and blood cell disorders
• evaluate for hyperparathyroidism
• evaluate stomach emptying
• evaluate spinal fluid flow and potential spinal fluid leaks
In adults and children, nuclear medicine is also used to:
• stage cancer by determining the presence or spread of cancer in various parts of the body
• localize sentinel lymph nodes before surgery in patients with breast cancer or skin and soft tissue tumors.
• plan treatment
• evaluate response to therapy
• detect the recurrence of cancer
• detect rare tumors of the pancreas and adrenal glands
• analyze native and transplant kidney blood flow and function
• detect urinary tract obstruction
• evaluate for hypertension related to the kidney arteries
• evaluate kidneys for infection versus scar
• detect and follow-up urinary reflux
In children, nuclear medicine is also used to:
• investigate abnormalities in the esophagus, such as esophageal reflux or motility disorders
• evaluate the openness of tear ducts
• evaluate the openness of ventricular shunts in the brain
• assess congenital heart disease for shunts and pulmonary blood flow
Nuclear medicine therapies include:
• Radioactive iodine (I-131) therapy used to treat some causes of hyperthyroid-ism (overactive thyroid gland, for example, Graves' disease) and thyroid cancer